There are seven public institutions involved in the power sector. These are the Ministry of Power (MOP), Energy Commission (EC), Public Utility Regulatory Commission (PURC), Volta River Authority (VRA), Ghana Grid Company (GridCo), Electricity Company of Ghana Limited (ECG) and the Northern Electricity Department Company(NEDCo), a subsidiary of the VRA.Energy Foundation is a private-public sector partnership to promote energy efficiency and conservation countrywide. Independent Power Producers(IPPs) are also private sector players in the power sector.
Generation is the first arm of the power chain in Ghana. Volta River Authority (VRA) is the major power generation company, solely owned by the Government of Ghana and established in 1961 by an Act of Parliament. VRA combines hydro, thermal and solar plants to generate electricity for supply to the local and export markets. Due to the energy sector reform, there are also other generation companies that are privately owned known as the Independent Power Producers. Notable among them are Ameri, Karpower, Sunon-Asogli and Cenit.
*Independent Power Producer
Source: Ghana Wholesale Electricity Market Bulletin by Energy Commission (Feb 2016 edition)
Transmission is the second arm of the Power Chain in Ghana. GRIDCo owns and operates the transmission grid mainly at 161kV with a total length of about 5,100 km. The other transmission voltages are 69kV, 225kV, and 330kV. These lines carry power from various generating stations to over fifty-four (54) substations owned by GridCo. At these substations, the power is stepped down to lower voltages including 34.5 kV and 11kV for the major bulk customers which include the distribution companies namely; Electricity Company of Ghana (ECG), Northern Electricity Distribution Company (NEDCo) and Enclave Power Company (EPC).
Distribution is the last and final arm of the Power Chain in Ghana. The Electricity Company of Ghana (ECG) is the major distribution company with over 70% market share. It is responsible for distribution of power in six administrative Regions in Ghana namely Greater Accra, Western, Ashanti, Central, Volta and Eastern regions
The Northern Electricity Department (NEDCo) was established under the Volta River Authority (VRA), to take the responsibility of electric power distribution in Northern part of Ghana. There is a third distribution company, Enclave Power Company, the only privately owned distribution company which is mainly responsible for the industries in the Free Zone Enclave of Ghana in Tema. The distribution companies receive power at 34.5kV from GridCo. and step it down to 11kV to industrial customers and step it further down to 440/230Volts to commercial and residential customers.